Symptoms And Signs

Leukemia is a universal phrase for several different kinds associated with blood cancer. There are a couple of kinds of acute leukemia and a couple of kinds of chronic leukemia. It starts in the bone marrow when one cell transforms and grows into a leukemia cell. This specific cell increases and ultimately the regular blood cells tend to be congested out. The unnatural cells then leak through the blood and might also conquer the central nervous system.

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Neutrophil Antibody Screen

Neutrophil Antibodies are antibodies produced by human body in order to fight foreign White Blood Cells (WBCs). Neutrophil Antibodies attack all types of White Blood Cells and their engagement is not limited Neutrophils only. Neutrophil Antibodies are given this name since the majority of White Blood Cells are Neutrophils and to avoid any misunderstand of using the term “WBC Antibodies” which would mean the antibodies found normally on the surface of White Blood Cells.


Where would foreign White Blood Cells come from? You may ask yourself. They come from blood transfusion procedures. Human immune system considers White Blood Cells that have incompatible Human Lymphocyte as foreign microorganisms and it starts producing Neutrophil Antibodies to protect the body from those foreign WBCs.

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HLA-B27 Antigen Testing

Human Lymphocyte Antigens (HLAs) present the Major Histocompatability Complex of human. Testing HLAs is important to indicate tissue compatibility with tissue transplantation. If the HLA antigens of the donor are not compatible with the recipient, the recipient will make antibodies to those antigens, accelerating rejection. Survival of the transplanted tissue is increased if HLA matching is good. Prior HLA sensitization causes antibodies to form in the blood of a transplant recipient and shortens the survival of red blood cells (RBCs) or platelets when transfused.

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Beta-2 Microglobulin

Beta2 Microglobulin is a protein that exists on the surface of all nucleated cells including White Blood CellsBeta2 Microglobulin is a human leukocyte antibody (HLA) major histocompatibility antigen that exists with increased numbers on white blood cells (WBCs) and particularly on lymphatic cells. Production of this protein is increased as these cells are produced or destroyed. Therefore, β2M are increased in patients with malignancies (especially lymphoma, leukemia, or multiple myeloma) or in patients with chronic severe inflammatory diseases. Because the degree of elevation can be related to tumor cell load, β2M is an accurate measurement of tumor disease activity, stage of disease, and prognosis. In that light, it is an important tumor marker. When central nervous system (CNS) involvement with these neoplasms is suspected, β2M can be measured in the CNS fluid and compared to blood levels. Increased levels are diagnostic of CNS involvement.

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Neutrophil Gelatinase–Associated Lipocalin

There are no early markers for acute or chronic renal disease. Serum creatinine levels rise only after there has been significant renal impairment and injury. It is important to note that the earlier renal disease or injury is identified, the more successfully it can be treated. Early treatment also helps to lower the morbidity associated with the disease. This is particularly important in patients who have serious nonrenal disease (e.g., heart surgery, renal transplant, sepsis). In these patients, severe acute kidney injury (AKI) increases morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients.

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Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein expressed by activated neutrophils. The detection of lactoferrin in a fecal sample therefore serves as a surrogate marker for inflammatory white blood cells (WBCs) in the intestinal tract. WBCs in the stool are not stable and may be easily destroyed by temperature changes, delays in testing, and toxins within the stool. As a result, WBCs may not be detected by common microscopic methods. Lactoferrin assay has allowed the identification of inflammatory cells in the stool without the use of microscopy.

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Complement Assay

Serum complement is a group of globulin proteins that act as enzymes. These enzymes facilitate the immunologic and inflammatory response. The complement system is important for destroying foreign cells and isolating “foreign” antigens. The total complement, sometimes labeled CH50, is made up of nine major components, C1 through C9. Besides these major components, there are some subcomponents and “inhibitor” components involved in the system. Classic complement activation starts when an immunoglobulin (Ig) M or IgG antibody binds with the C1 q subcomponent of C1. C1 activates C4, which activates C2 and so on to C9. There are also alternative pathways for the activation of this system.

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Human Lymphocyte Antigen

What are Antigens?

Antigen stands for Antibody Generator.Antigens are molecules that trigger an immune response which leads to the generation of antibodies depending on the type of the Antigen itself.


There are two types of Antigens; there are that are created by the human body depending on the person’s genetic code, this type is known as “Self Antigen“. A person’s immune system doesn’t attack his own self antigens. Another kind of antigens are those foreign to the body which the body is exposed to the surrounding environment, they are known as “Non-self Antigens“. The immune system is programmed to attack any object that has non-self antigens. In other words, the immune system can identify if a cell or a group of cells belong to the body or if they are foreign objects that must be fought against. And based on the type of antigens found within the object, the necessary types of White Blood Cells are created to treat the threat.

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HIV Serology Test

HIV is also known as human T-lymphotrophic virus, type III (HTLV-III), or the lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV). There are two types of human immunodeficiency viruses, types 1 and 2. Type 1 is most prevalent in the United States and Western Europe. Type 2 is mostly limited to Western African nations. Those at high risk for AIDS include sexually active male homosexuals, bisexual men and women with multiple partners, intravenous (IV) drug abusers, persons receiving blood products containing HIV, and infants exposed to the virus during gestation and delivery.

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Cell Surface Immunophenotyping

Cell Surface Immunophenotyping is a test used to detect the progressive depletion of CD4 T lymphocytes, which is associated with an increased likelihood of clinical complications from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Test results can indicate if a patient with AIDS is at risk for developing opportunistic infections. It is also used to confirm the diagnosis of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and to differentiate AML from acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).

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