Allergy Skin Testing

Allergy Skin Testing is the most commonly used and easiest method of identifying patients who suffer from allergies. Furthermore, it is a method by which a specific allergen can be determined. When properly performed, skin testing is considered to be the most convenient and least expensive test for detecting allergic reactions. Since the early 1900s, skin testing has been a common practice for establishing a diagnosis of allergy by reexposure of the individual to a specific allergen. Skin testing provides useful confirmatory evidence when a diagnosis of allergy is suspected on clinical grounds. The simplicity, rapidity, low costs, sensitivity, and specificity explain the crucial position skin testing has in allergy testing.

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Allergy Blood Testing

Allergy Blood Testing is a measurement of serum Immunoglobin E (IgE). Allergy Blood Testing is an effective method to diagnose allergy and specifically identify the Allergen (the substance to which the person is allergic). Serum IgE levels increase when allergic individuals are exposed to the allergen. Various classes of allergens can initiate the allergic response. They include animal dandruff, foods, pollens, dusts, molds, insect venoms, drugs, and agents in the occupational environment.

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Febrile Agglutinin

Febrile Agglutinin serologic studies are used to diagnose infectious diseases such as salmonellosis, rickettsial diseases, brucellosis, and tularemia. Neoplastic diseases, such as leukemias and lymphomas, are also associated with febrile agglutinins. Appropriate antibiotic treatment of the infectious agent is associated with a drop in the titer activity of febrile agglutinins. Cold agglutinins occur in patients who are infected by other agents, most notably Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Other diseases include influenza, mononucleosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lymphomas, and hemolytic anemia.
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Platelet Antibody

Platelets Antibody test is used to evaluate Thrombocytopenia and exclude an immune-associated etiology.

 

Immune-mediated destruction of platelets may be caused by either autoantibodies directed against antigens located on the same person’s platelets or alloantibodies that develop after exposure to transfused platelets received from a donor. These antibodies are usually directed to an antigen on the platelet membrane, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) or platelet-specific antigen (e.g., PLA1, PLA2). Many different laboratory techniques can be used to demonstrate the antiplatelet antibodies. These tests can directly identify the immunoglobulin with the use of radioimmunoassay (RIA) or immunofluorescence. Quantitative measurements are possible with cytofluorometry. Other tests identify complement binding on the affected platelet membrane. Most antiplatelet antibody testing is now performed using immunologic assays.

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Leukemia Symptoms and Signs

Leukemia is a universal phrase for several different kinds associated with blood cancer. There are a couple of kinds of acute leukemia and a couple of kinds of chronic leukemia. It starts in the bone marrow when one cell transforms and grows into a leukemia cell. This specific cell increases and ultimately the regular blood cells tend to be congested out. The unnatural cells then leak through the blood and might also conquer the central nervous system.

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Neutrophil Antibody Screen

Neutrophil Antibodies are antibodies produced by human body in order to fight foreign White Blood Cells (WBCs). Neutrophil Antibodies attack all types of White Blood Cells and their engagement is not limited Neutrophils only. Neutrophil Antibodies are given this name since the majority of White Blood Cells are Neutrophils and to avoid any misunderstand of using the term “WBC Antibodies” which would mean the antibodies found normally on the surface of White Blood Cells.

 

Where would foreign White Blood Cells come from? You may ask yourself. They come from blood transfusion procedures. Human immune system considers White Blood Cells that have incompatible Human Lymphocyte as foreign microorganisms and it starts producing Neutrophil Antibodies to protect the body from those foreign WBCs.

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HLA-B27 Antigen Testing

Human Lymphocyte Antigens (HLAs) present the Major Histocompatability Complex of human. Testing HLAs is important to indicate tissue compatibility with tissue transplantation. If the HLA antigens of the donor are not compatible with the recipient, the recipient will make antibodies to those antigens, accelerating rejection. Survival of the transplanted tissue is increased if HLA matching is good. Prior HLA sensitization causes antibodies to form in the blood of a transplant recipient and shortens the survival of red blood cells (RBCs) or platelets when transfused.

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Beta-2 Microglobulin

Beta2 Microglobulin is a protein that exists on the surface of all nucleated cells including White Blood CellsBeta2 Microglobulin is a human leukocyte antibody (HLA) major histocompatibility antigen that exists with increased numbers on white blood cells (WBCs) and particularly on lymphatic cells. Production of this protein is increased as these cells are produced or destroyed. Therefore, β2M are increased in patients with malignancies (especially lymphoma, leukemia, or multiple myeloma) or in patients with chronic severe inflammatory diseases. Because the degree of elevation can be related to tumor cell load, β2M is an accurate measurement of tumor disease activity, stage of disease, and prognosis. In that light, it is an important tumor marker. When central nervous system (CNS) involvement with these neoplasms is suspected, β2M can be measured in the CNS fluid and compared to blood levels. Increased levels are diagnostic of CNS involvement.

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