What Does HIV Stand For?

What is HIV?

HIV stands for Human Immunity Virus. Human Immunity Virus infects the Macrophages (Monocytes in its most mature state), and the T type of White Blood Cells Lymphocytes leading to a chronic Low White Blood Cells Count (Leukopenia).



 How is HIV Transmitted?

In most conditions, Human Immunity Virus is sexually transmitted virus. HIV can be transferred either by human semen from a male to a partner, or by the vaginal fluid from a female to a partner during an unprotected sexual intercourse. Vaginal sex is not the only way HIV is sexually transmitted. HIV can be transmitted in any sexual activity that includes exposure to body fluids, for example, unprotected oral sex is an activity that causes high HIV transmission opportunity. Continue reading…


Neutropenic Precautions

Neutropenic Precautions are Infection Control Nursing Procedures that are applied when patient has a high risk of bacterial infections due to low Neutrophil count (Neutropenia).


Since the Neutrophil fights infections and defends the body against pyogenic bacteria (Bacteria that doesn’t cause Pus), the body or the immune system may not be able to fight the invading microorganisms if the Neutrophil produced or circulating in the blood is insufficient. Possible exposure to bacteria and infections would be very risky in such a case.


The Neutropenic Precautions are followed to guard patients with a low white blood cell count or a depressed immune system from the possibility of exposure to or contact with the infecting microorganisms. The precautions are an alternative method if increasing the white blood cells count is not possible or undesirable at the precautions are applied.

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Low Monocyte Count

Low Monocyte count is also known as Monocytopenia and it refers to the abnormal decrease of Monocytes in the circulating blood.

The normal white blood cell count of Monocytes ranges between 1100 cells/µL (5.8% of differential white blood cells count) in infants to300 cells/µL (4% of differential white blood cells count) in adults.

In addition to the main causes of Leukopenia, low Monocytes count can be a result of acute stress or glucocorticoid administration.

Immunosuppressive agents (drugs that reduce the production of white cells) and overwhelming infections will decrease the count of Monocytes in the blood.


Low Lymphocytes Count

Low Lymphocytes count is also known as Lymphopenia.  It occurs when the Lymphocyte count is less than 1,400 cells/µL in children and less than 1,000 cells/µL in adults.

The normal white blood cell count of Lymphocytes is 5,800 cells/µL in newborns and then it increases to reach 7000 cells/µL at the first year. The count of Lymphocytes decreases again to reach 2500 cells/µL in adults.

I addition to the causes of Leukopenia, Low Lymphocytes count is caused by stress and adrenocortical stimulation.

Low Lymphocytes count can also be caused by Radiation Therapy and treatments with Alkylating agents.

Low Lymphocytes count is also associated to Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (Lymph tissue cancer), Lymphosarcoma, and Terminal Uremia.


Low Basophils Count

Low Basophils count is also known as Basopenia. It occurs when the Basophils count drops to lower than 20 cells/µL of human blood.

The normal white blood cell count of the Basophil ranges between 100 cells/µL in infants to 40 cells/µL in adults. Since the counts are very low, differential white blood cell counting method is more effective in recognizing alternations to normal Basophil counts.

Low Bashophils count may be a result of Leukopenia causes.

Low Basophils count can also be a sign of overwhelming infections, shocks, and Adrenocortical Stimulation.

Low Basophils count is also caused by terminal Urticaria and it can be a sign of ovulation in females.

Low Basophils Count can be also caused by drugs that suppress the immune system.


Low Eosinophils Count

Low Eosinophils Count is also known as Eosinopenia, it occurs when the Eosinophils count is less than 50 cells/µL of human blood.

The normal white blood cell count of Eosinophils range between 450 cells/µL in infants to 200 cells/µL in adults.

Low Eosinophils count may occur due to the same causes of Leukopenia such like aplastic anemia and HIV.

Eosinophil is also reduced in the circulating blood in cases of Severe Infections, Shocks, and Adrenocortical Stimulation.

Eosinopenia is also a sing of stress and Cushing’s Disease since the Eosinophils are reduced due to the presence of Adrenocortical Hormones such like cortisol and aldosterone. Treatments with corticosteroids is also a cause of low Eosinophils count for the same reason.



Leukopenia means the “white reduction” and it is a term used to refer to the low white blood cells count.

Since Neutrophils make up the highest count of White Blood Cells, a significant decrease in the normal Neutrophil count (Neutrophilia) would cause a decrease in the normal White Blood Cell Count. The first thoughts that come in mind about a significant decrease in the white blood cells would be associated with a decrease in the Neutrophil (Neutrophilia) and that may cause terms Neutrophilia and Leukopenia to be used interchangeably to give the same meaning, which is absolutely inaccurate. Continue reading…